Press Room

Research

On the Measurement of "Grayness" of Cities

Working Paper, June 2018 | Sripad Motiram, Vamsi Vakulabharanam

Sripad Motiram and Vamsi Vakulabharanam of PERI consider situations where individuals belonging to multiple groups inhabit a space that can be divided into smaller distinguishable units, a feature characterizing many cities in the world.  They conceptualize a phenomenon that they term "Grayness" - a combination of spatial integration based upon group-identity and income. Grayness is high when cities display a high degree of spatial co-existence in terms of both identity and income. They develop an index of Grayness, then apply this Grayness index to both the Indian city of Hyderabad and selected American cities.
Research

A Policy Proposal for Green Jobs in India

Working Paper, April 2018 | Rohit Azad, Shouvik Chakraborty

Research
In “Giovanni Arrighi in Beijing:  Rethinking the Transformation of the Labor Supply in Rural China During the Reform Era,” Hao Qu and Zhongjin Li use a Marxian political economy perspective to analyze the formation of the reserve army of labor in China during the reform era, which began in 1978. Building from the work of Arrighi, and critiquing the highly influential Lewis model, Qu and Li show how the formation of an industrial reserve army in China has been an historical process in which the state has played an active role.
Research

Migration, Crises, and Social Transformation in India Since the 1990s

Working Paper, January 2018 | Smriti Rao, Vamsi Vakulabharanam

Since liberalization, urban migration in India has increased in quantity, but also changed in quality, with permanent marriage migration and temporary, circular employment migration rising, even as permanent economic migration remains stagnant. In this new paper, Smriti  Rao and Vamsi Vakulabharanam understand internal migration in India to be a re-ordering of productive and reproductive labor that signifies a deep transformation of society. This transformation is a response to the combination of agrarian, employment, and social reproduction crises.  The migration patterns support capital accumulation, but create major burdens for a majority of Indians, who are seeking stable, rooted livelihoods.
Research

Revisiting the Gender Wage Gap in Korea: Focusing on Working Hours by Occupation

Working Paper, December 2017 | Nayeon Lim, Minsik Choi

This paper by Nayeon Lim and Minsik Choi explores the relationship between working hours and the gender wage gap in Korea. Because the labor practice of working long hours in South Korea favors men, who tend to spend little time on domestic labor, long working hours can influence the gender wage gap by discriminating against women. Among other factors, working hours have a positive effect on the gender wage gap in male-dominated occupations, but not in female-dominated ones. Thus, working long hours could be a primary factor explaining the large gender wage gap in Korea, where most occupations are male-dominated.
Research
In this book, Stephen Cohn of Knox College analyzes how and why neoclassical and new institutionalist economics replaced Marxist economics as the dominant political-economic paradigms inside China. The book examines the different ways that Marxist and neoclassical economists thought about rural restructuring, the reorganization of the international sector, and the performance of state owned enterprises. It finds the reconstruction of the Chinese economics profession in the image of the American profession reflected the impact of classical liberalism, the daily language of market-speak, and abandonment of questions about the construction of socialism.
Research
This paper by Hao Qi creates a time series of the rate of surplus value for the Chinese economy over the extended period 1956-2014, using a Marxian approach. It finds that the high profitability that stimulated capital accumulation in the decade before the 2008 crisis had relied on the continuous growth in the rate of surplus value.  But after the crisis, the conditions supporting a high rate of surplus value—an expanding external market, a relatively large reserve army of labor, and a low debt-income ratio—have weakened.  This has led to a "new normal" pattern of declining profitability in China.
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